Camouflage is anything you use to keep yourself, your equipment and position from looking like what they are. Personal camouflage has certain simple rules that will defeat the most obvious sensor on the battlefield; the human eye.
Shape. Your helmet, load bearing web equipment, rifle and other gear have a clear, often square shape, and there are no squares in nature. Break up straight lines with strips of burlap, camo cloth or netting in shades of brown and green. Elastic bands can be sewn to your uniform or equipment straps to facilitate adding camo strips or vegetation. Camo materials should not be attached to your rifle in areas where they may slip and interfere with your firm grip or the mechanical operation of the weapon. It is better to cover the weapon with paint or camouflage tape.
Shine. Most modern military equipment uses plastic or subdued painted metal fasteners and buckles. If the paint has worn off or you are using commercial equipment with shiny buckles, these need to be covered with paint or tape. Other shiny surfaces that can reflect light include binoculars, compasses, watch crystals, plastic map covers and eyeglasses. Little can be done about eyeglasses other than using headgear with a low brim or mosquito netting, but other shiny equipment should be stowed away when not needed and used with caution. Shine also includes skin, even at night when it will reflect moonlight and flares.
Silhouette. Similar in many respects to shape, silhouette includes the outline of the human form and the equipment it is carrying. The shape of the head and shoulders of a man are unmistakable and a bare helmet attracts attention. The use of local vegetation as garnishing helps break up your silhouette. Thick handfuls of grass tucked into your shoulder straps are especially useful in breaking up the distinctive "head and shoulders" shape of the human figure and vegetation added to a helmet breaks the smooth curve of the top and the line of the brim. Take care not to overdo adding local vegetation. You shouldn't need a machete to hack a path through your camouflage to get at your ammo pouch or other necessary equipment. Also, a large bush or tree is sure to attract attention when it starts to move. Silhouette also includes field craft. However well camouflaged you may be, it is little help if you "sky line" yourself by walking along the top of a hill or ridge line, or if you stand against a background of one solid color.
Smell. Even the most urbanized man will develop a good sense of smell after a few days in the open. He will be able to detect engine smells, cooking, body odors and washing. Some smells are hard to minimize. Soaps should be scent-free and activities such as cooking should be confined to daylight hours when other smells are stronger and the air warmer. Rubbish from cooking should be carried away from your operational area and buried only as a second choice. Buried objects are often dug up by animals and can give a good indication of the strength and composition of your patrol or unit as well as its morale. The discipline of refuse removal is important.
Sound. You can make a lot of noise while out on patrol. Your boots can squeak. Your cleaning kit or magazines can rattle in your ammo pouches. Heavy pack frames can creak. Fittings on your weapon can rattle. Radios can have background noise. Coughing and talking can carry for long distances, especially at night. You must become familiar with a silent routine in which hand signals replace the spoken word and conversations are conducted in a whisper. Proper stowage of your gear, taping of slings and other noisy equipment and a final shakedown before a patrol moves out will reduce noise. If digging a position, place sentries far enough out that they will spot an enemy before he hears the sound of digging.
Color. Though most modern combat uniforms are in a disruptive pattern camouflage, there may be times when this is less helpful. The trouble with camo clothing is that in the wrong environment, like cities, it stands out and says "Hey, look at me!" If fighting in built-up areas, a pattern of greys, browns and dull reds would be more useful than the typical woodland BDU pattern. Natural vegetation used to garnish helmets and equipment will fade and change color. Leaves will dry and curl up exposing pale under surfaces. You may have put dark green ferns and leaves into your helmet band while in the woods and then find yourself moving through an area of pale open grassland. Check and change your camouflage regularly. The most obvious color that needs camouflaging is that of human skin, and for that you need G.I. camo stick or, preferably, a commercial camo cream. G.I. camo sticks are issued in loam and light green for use in areas with green vegetation. A sand and light green stick is used in areas lacking green vegetation. A loam and white stick is for use in snow covered terrain. If camo sticks or creme are not available use burnt cork, bark or charcoal for the dark color and mud for the light color. Dark colors are used to reduce the highlights formed by the nose, cheek bones, chin, ears and forehead. Lighter colors are used in areas of shadow under the eyes, nose and chin. When applying camo to your face it is useful to work with a buddy and help each other. G.I. camo sticks are rough on the skin and difficult to apply. A few drops of baby oil, skin lotion or insect repellent rubbed on the skin first will make it much easier to apply. Skin camo needs to be periodically touched-up as you move and sweat. A simple pattern for the face is to apply a light color first to the entire face and then add dark diagonal stripes. The diagonals cut though and break up the horizontal and vertical lines of the eyes nose and mouth.
Good camouflage is almost as important as good marksmanship. A well camouflaged man who is a poor shot will probably survive longer than the poorly concealed expert sniper.
Coal stores well if kept in a dark place and away from moving air. Air
speeds deterioration and breakdown, causing it to burn more rapidly. Coal may be
stored in a plastic-lined pit or in sheds, bags, boxes, or barrels and
should be kept away from circulating air, light, and moisture. Cover it to lend
protection from weather and sun.
Wood. Hardwoods such as apple, cherry, and other fruit woods are slow
burning and sustain coals. Hardwoods are more difficult to burn than softer
woods, thus requiring a supply of kindling. Soft woods such as pine and cedar
are light in weight and burn very rapidly, leaving ash and few coals for
cooking. If you have a fireplace or a wood/coal burning stove, you will want to
store several cords of firewood. Firewood is usually sold by the cord which is a
neat pile that totals 128 cubic feet. This pile is four feet wide, four feet
high, and eight feet long. Some dealers sell wood by the ton. As a general rule
of thumb, a standard cord of air dried dense hardwood weighs about two tons and
provides as much heat as one ton of coal. Be suspicious of any alleged cord
delivered in a 1/2 or 3/4 ton pickup truck.
For best results, wood should be seasoned (dried) properly, usually at east
a year. A plastic tarp, wood planks, or other plastic or metal sheeting over
the woodpile is useful in keeping the wood dry. Other types of fuels are
more practical to store and use than wood or coal.
Newspaper logs make a good and inexpensive source of fuel. You may prepare
the logs in the following manner:
Use about eight pages of newspaper and open flat.
Spread the stack, alternating the cut sides and folded sides.
Place a 1" wood dowel or metal rod across one end and roll the paper around
the rod very tightly. Roll it until there are 6-8 inches left to roll, then
slip another 8 pages underneath the roll. Continue this procedure until you
have a roll 4-6 inches in diameter.
With a fine wire, tie the roll on both ends. Withdraw the rod. Your
newspaper log is ready to use. Four of these logs will burn about 1 hour.
Propane is another excellent fuel for indoor use. Like kerosene, it produces
carbon dioxide as it burns and is therefore not poisonous. It does consume
oxygen so be sure to crack a window when burning propane.
Propane stores indefinitely, having no known shelf life. Propane stoves and
small portable heaters are very economical, simple to use, and come the
closest to approximating the type of convenience most of us are accustomed to
using on a daily basis.
The storage of propane is governed by strict local laws. In this area you
may store up to 1 gallon inside a building and up to 60 gallons stored outside.
If you store more than these amounts, you will need a special permit from
the fire marshal.
The primary hazard in using propane is that it is heavier than air and if a
leak occurs it may "pool" which can create an explosive atmosphere.
Furthermore, basement natural gas heating units CANNOT be legally converted
for propane use. Again, the vapors are heavier than air and form "pockets."
Ignition sources such as water heaters and electrical sources can cause an
White gas (Coleman fuel). Many families have camp stoves which burn Coleman
Fuel or white gasoline. These stoves are fairly easy to use and produce a
great amount of heat. However, they, like charcoal, produce vast amounts of
carbon monoxide. NEVER use a Coleman Fuel stove indoors. It could be a fatal
mistake to your entire family.
Never store fuels in the house or near a heater. Use a metal store cabinet
which is vented on top and bottom and can be locked.
Kerosene (also known as Range Oil No. 1) is the cheapest of all the storage
fuels and is also very forgiving if you make a mistake. Kerosene is not as
explosive as gasoline and Coleman fuel. Kerosene stores well for long
periods of time and by introducing some fuel additives it can be made to store
even longer. However, do not store it in metal containers for extended time
periods unless they are porcelain lined because the moisture in the kerosene
will rust through the container causing the kerosene to leak out. Most hardware
stores and home improvement centers sell kerosene in five gallon plastic
containers which store for many years. A 55 gallon drum stores in the back yard,
or ten 5 gallon plastic containers will provide fuel enough to last an entire
winter if used sparingly.
Caution: To burn kerosene you will need a kerosene heater. There are many
models and sizes to choose from but remember that you are not trying to heat
your entire home. The larger the heater the more fuel you will have to store.
Most families should be able to get by on a heater that produces about 9,600
BTUs of heat, though kerosene heaters are made that will produce up to 25,000 to
30,000 BTUs. If you have the storage space to store the fuel required by
these larger heaters they are excellent investments, but for most families the
smaller heaters are more than adequate. When selecting a kerosene heater be
sure to get one that can double as a cooking surface and source of light. Then
when you are forced to use it be sure to plan your meals so that they can be
cooked when you are using the heater for heat rather than wasting fuel used for
When kerosene burns it requires very little oxygen, compared to charcoal.
You must crack a window about 1/4 inch to allow enough oxygen to enter the room
to prevent asphyxiation. During combustion, kerosene is not poisonous and is
safe to use indoors. To prevent possible fires you should always fill it
outside. The momentary incomplete combustion during lighting and
extinguishing of kerosene heaters can cause some unpleasant odors. To prevent
these odors from lingering in your home always light and extinguish the heater
out of doors. During normal operation a kerosene heater is practically odorless.
Charcoal. Never use a charcoal burning device indoors. When charcoal burns
it is a voracious consumer of oxygen and will quickly deplete the oxygen supply
in your little "home within a home." Furthermore, as it burns it produces
vast amounts of carbon monoxide which is a deadly poison. If you make the
mistake of trying to heat your home by burning charcoal it could prove fatal to
your entire family. Never burn charcoal indoors.
To conserve your cooking fuel storage needs always do your emergency cooking
in the most efficient manner possible. Don't boil more water than you need,
extinguish the fire as soon as you finished, plan your meals ahead of time
to consolidate as much cooking as possible, during the winter cook on top of
your heating unit while heating your home, and cook in a pressure cooker or
other fuel efficient container as much as possible. Keep enough fuel to provide
outdoor cooking for at least 7-10 days.
It is even possible to cook without using fuel at all. For example, to cook
dry beans you can place them inside a pressure cooker with the proper amount
of water and other ingredients needed and place it on your heat source until it
comes up to pressure. Then turn off the heat, remove the pressure cooker and
place inside a large box filled with newspapers, blankets, or other insulating
materials. Leave it for two and a half hours and then open it, your meal
will be done, having cooked for two and a half hours with no heat. If you don't
have a large box in which to place the pressure cooker, simply wrap it in
several blankets and place it in the corner.
Store matches in waterproof airtight tin with each piece of equipment that
must be lit with a flame.
Sterno fuel, a jellied petroleum product, is an excellent source of fuel for
inclusion in your back pack as part of your 72 hour kit. Sterno is very
light weight and easily ignited with a match or a spark from flint and steel but
is not explosive. It is also safe for use indoors.
A Sterno stove can be purchased at any sporting goods store and will retail
between $3 and $8, depending upon the model you choose. They fold up into a
very small, compact unit ideal for carrying in a pack. The fuel is readily
available at all sporting goods stores and many drug stores. One can of
Sterno fuel, about the diameter of a can of tuna fish and twice as high, will
allow you to cook six meals if used frugally. Chafing dishes and fondue pots can
also be used with Sterno.
Sterno is not without some problems. It will evaporate very easily, even
when the lid is securely fastened. If you use Sterno in your 72 hour kit you
should check it every six to eight months to insure that it has not
evaporated beyond the point of usage. Because of this problem it is not a good
fuel for long-term storage. It is a very expensive fuel to use compared to
others fuel available, but is extremely convenient and portable.
Coleman fuel (white gas), when used with a Coleman stove is another
excellent and convenient fuel for cooking. It is not as portable nor as
lightweight as Sterno, but produces a much greater BTU value. Like Sterno,
Coleman fuel has a tendency to evaporate even when the container is tightly
sealed so it is not a good fuel for long-term storage. Unlike Sterno, however,
it is highly volatile; it will explode under the right conditions and should
therefore never be stored in the home. Because of its highly flammable nature
great care should always be exercised when lighting stoves and lanterns that use
Coleman fuel. Many serious burns have been caused by carelessness with this
Always store Coleman fuel in the garage or shed, out of doors.
Charcoal is the least expensive fuel per BTU that the average family can
store. Remember that it must always be used out of doors because of the vast
amounts of poisonous carbon monoxide it produces. Charcoal will store for
extended period of time if it is stored in air tight containers. It readily
absorbs moisture from the surrounding air so do not store it in the paper bags
it comes in for more than a few months or it may be difficult to light. Transfer
it to airtight metal or plastic containers and it will keep almost forever.
Fifty or sixty dollars worth of charcoal will provide all the cooking fuel a
family will need for an entire year if used sparingly. The best time to buy
briquettes inexpensively is at the end of the summer. Broken or torn bags of
briquettes are usually sold at a big discount. You will also want to store a
small amount of charcoal lighter fluid (or kerosene). Newspapers will also
provide an excellent ignition source for charcoal when used in a funnel type of
To light charcoal using newspapers use two or three sheets, crumpled up, and
a #10 tin can. Cut both ends out of the can. Punch holes every two inches
around the lower edge of the can with a punch-type can opener (for opening
juice cans). Set the can down so the punches holes are on the bottom. Place the
crumpled newspaper in the bottom of the can and place the charcoal
briquettes on top of the newspaper. Lift the can slightly and light the
newspaper. Prop a small rock under the bottom edge of the can to create a a good
draft. The briquettes will be ready to use in about 20-30 minutes. When the
coals are ready remove the chimney and place them in your cooker. Never place
burning charcoal directly on concrete or cement because the heat will crack it.
A wheelbarrow or old metal garbage can lid makes an excellent container for this
type of fire.
One of the nice things about charcoal is that you can regulate the heat you
will receive from them. Each briquette will produce about 40 degrees of
heat. If you are baking bread, for example, and need 400 degrees of heat for
your oven, simply use ten briquettes.
To conserve heat and thereby get the maximum heat value from your charcoal
you must learn to funnel the heat where you want it rather than letting it
dissipate into the air around you. One excellent way to do this is to cook
inside a cardboard oven. Take a cardboard box, about the size of an orange
crate, and cover it with aluminum foil inside and out. Be sure that the shiny
side is visible so that maximum reflectivity is achieved. Turn the box on its
side so that the opening is no longer on the top but is on the side. Place some
small bricks or other noncombustible material inside upon which you can rest a
cookie sheet about two or three inches above the bottom of the box. Place ten
burning charcoal briquettes between the bricks (if you need 400 degrees), place
the support for your cooking vessels, and then place your bread pans or whatever
else you are using on top of the cookie sheet. Prop a foil-covered cardboard
lid over the open side, leaving a large crack for air to get in (charcoal needs
a lot of air to burn) and bake your bread, cake, cookies, etc. just like you
would in your regular oven. Your results will amaze you.
To make your own charcoal, select twigs, limbs, and branches of fruit, nut
and other hardwood trees; black walnuts and peach or apricot pits may also
be used. Cut wood into desired size, place in a large can which has a few holes
punched in it, put a lid on the can and place the can in a hot fire. When
the flames from the holes in the can turn yellow-red, remove the can from the
fire and allow it to cool. Store the briquettes in a moisture-proof container.
Burn charcoal only in a well-ventilated area.
Wood and Coal. Many wood and coal burning stoves are made with cooking
surface. These are excellent to use indoors during the winter because you
may already be using it to heat the home. In the summer, however, they are
unbearably hot and are simply not practical cooking appliances for indoor use.
If you choose to build a campfire on the ground outside be sure to use caution
and follow all the rules for safety. Little children, and even many adults, are
not aware of the tremendous dangers that open fires may pose.
Kerosene. Many kerosene heaters will also double as a cooking unit. In fact,
it is probably a good idea to not purchase a kerosene heater that cannot be
used to cook on as well. Follow the same precautions for cooking over
kerosene as was discussed under the section on heating your home with kerosene.
Propane. Many families have propane camp stoves. These are the most
convenient and easy to use of all emergency cooking appliances available.
They may be used indoors or out. As with other emergency fuel sources, cook with
a pressure cooker whenever possible to conserve fuel.
Most of the alternatives require a fire or flame, so use caution. More home
fires are caused by improper usage of fires used for light than for any
other purpose. Especially use extra caution with children and flame. Teach them
the proper safety procedures to follow under emergency conditions. Allow them to
practice these skills under proper adult supervision now, rather than
waiting until an emergency strikes.
Cyalume sticks are the safest form of indoor lighting available but very few
people even know what they are. Cyalume sticks can be purchased at most
sporting goods stores for about $2 per stick. They are a plastic stick about
four inches in length and a half inch in diameter. To activate them, simply bend
them until the glass tube inside them breaks, then shake to mix the chemicals
inside and it will glow a bright green light for up to eight hours. Cyalume
is the only form of light that is safe to turn on inside a home after an
earthquake. One of the great dangers after a serious earthquake is caused by
ruptured natural gas lines. If you flip on a light switch or even turn on a
flashlight you run the risk of causing an explosion. Cyalume will not ignite
natural gas. Cyalume sticks are so safe that a baby can even use them for a
Flashlights are excellent for most types of emergencies except in situations
where ruptured natural gas lines may be present. Never turn a flashlight on
or off if there is any possibility of ruptured gas lines. Go outside first,
turn it on or off, then enter the building.
The three main problems with relying upon flashlights is that they give
light to very small areas, the batteries run down fairly quickly during use, and
batteries do not store well for extended time periods. Alkaline batteries
store the best if stored in a cool location and in an airtight container. These
batteries should be expected to store for three to five years. Many
manufacturers are now printing a date on the package indicating the date through
which the batteries should be good. When stored under ideal conditions the shelf
life will be much longer than that indicated. Lithium batteries will store for
about twice as long as alkaline batteries (about ten years).
If you use flashlights be sure to use krypton or halogen light bulbs in them
because they last much longer and give off several times more light than
regular flashlight bulbs on the same energy consumption. Store at least two
or three extra bulbs in a place where they will not be crushed or broken.
Candles. Every family should have a large supply of candles. Three hundred
sixty-five candles, or one per day is not too many. The larger the better.
Fifty-hour candles are available in both solid and liquid form. White or
light colored candles burn brighter than dark candles. Tallow candles burn
brighter, longer, and are fairly smoke free when compared to wax candles. Their
lighting ability can be increased by placing an aluminum foil reflector behind
them or by placing them in front of a mirror. However, candles are extremely
dangerous indoors because of the high fire danger--especially around children.
For this reason be sure to store several candle lanterns or broad-based candle
holders. Be sure to store a goodly supply of wooden matches
Save your candle ends for emergency use. Votive candles set in empty jars
will burn for up to 15 hours. Non-candles (plastic dish and paper wicks) and
a bottle of salad oil will provide hundreds of hours of candle light.
Trench candles can be used as fireplace fuel or as a candle for light. To
make trench candles:
Place a narrow strip of cloth or twisted string (for a wick) on the edge of
a stack of 6-10 newspapers. Roll the papers very tightly, leaving about 3/4" of
wick extending at each end. Tie the roll firmly with string or wire at 2-4"
intervals. With a small saw, cut about 1" above each tie and pull the cut
sections into cone shapes. Pull the center string in each piece toward the top
of the cone to serve as a wick.
Melt paraffin in a large saucepan set inside a larger pan of hot water. Soak
the pieces of candle in the paraffin for about 2 minutes. Remove the candles and
place on a newspaper to dry. Kerosene lamps are excellent sources of light and
will burn for approximately 45 hours on a quart of fuel. They burn bright and
are inexpensive to operate. The main problem with using them is failure to
properly trim the wicks and using the wrong size chimney. Wicks should be
trimmed in an arch, a "V," an "A" or straight across the top. Failure to
properly trim and maintain wicks will result in smoke and poor light.
Aladdin type lamps that use a circular wick and mantle do not need trimming
and produce much more light (and heat) than conventional kerosene lamps.
These lamps, however, produce a great amount of heat, getting up to 750 degrees
F. If placed within 36 inches of any combustible object such as wooden
cabinets, walls, etc. charring can occur. Great caution should therefore be
exercised to prevent accidental fires.
The higher the elevation the taller the chimney should be. Most chimneys
that come with kerosene lamps are made for use at sea level. At about 4500 feet
above sea level the chimney should be about 18-20 inches high. If your
chimney is not as tall as it should be you can improvise by wrapping aluminum
foil around the top of it and extending it above the top. This will enable the
light to still come out of the bottom portion and yet provide proper drawing of
air for complete combustion. If the chimney is too short it will result in smoke
and poor light. Be sure to store extra wicks, chimneys and mantles.
Propane and Coleman lanterns. Camp lanterns burning Coleman fuel or propane
make excellent sources of light. Caution should be used in filling and
lighting Coleman lanterns because the fuel is highly volatile and a flash type
fire is easy to set off. Always fill them outside. Propane, on the other hand,
is much safer. It is not as explosive and does not burn quite as hot. A double
mantle lantern gives off as much light as two 100-watt light bulbs. Either
propane or Coleman fuel type lanterns are very reliable and should be an
integral part of your preparedness program. Be sure to store plenty of extra
mantles and matches.
Store lots of wooden matches (1,000-2,000 is not too many). Also store
butane cigarette lighters to light candles, lanterns and fireplaces. It would be
a good idea for everyone to have a personal fire building kit with at least
six different ways to start a fire.
Above all, your home and family must be protected from the ravages of fire
by your actions. Study the instructions for any appliance used for heating,
cooking, or lighting and understand their features as well as their
Don't go to sleep with any unventilated burning device in your home. Your family
might not wake up.
Whatever you store, store it safely and legally. In an emergency, survival
may cause you to make decisions that are questionable with regard to safety.
Become educated to the inherent hazards of your choices and make a decision
based on as much verifiable information as possible. You and your family's lives
will depend on it.
Consider carefully how you will provide fuel for your family for heating,
cooking, and lighting during times of emergencies. Next to food, water, and
shelter, energy is the most important item you can store.